Rock Planets


Hi reader of this post,

In our solar system, there are 4 rocky planets that are close to the sun. The rocky planet make up the planets of the inner solar system.


The first of rocky planet is Mercury. Mercury is named after the roman god of communication and message. It is due to Mercury’s revolving around the Sun so quickly, leading to it being named after the messenger of the Roman Gods, who was fast. Mercury is famous for being the smallest and closest planet to the sun. Mercury is so small,that it is even smaller than some of the moons in the solar system such as Ganymde and Titan .Mercury has no atmosphere because it is too small and its gravity is not strong enough to hold an atmosphere together. It is also very close to the sun so the solar wind from the sun is very strong and can easily blow away any atmosphere on mercury.Without an atmosphere to retain heat, Mercury’s temperature ranges from 430°C in the day to -185°C at nightIt Mercury 3 days ( 1 days = time it takes for the planet to revolve once) for Mercury to revolve around the sun twice( 2 Mercury year). 1 Mercury day is 88 earth day wow that is long.Picture3

Cool fact about the orbit of Mercury is that it is not a circle but more of an oval.  Mercury has the most eccentric orbit out of all the planets. Eccentric is how uneven or unbalanced the orbit . Cool fact, furthest distance of  Mercury from the sun is 1.5 times the distance of Mercury when it is closest to the sun. this is proof of how unbalanced the orbit is.


Second is the bright and beautiful Venus. Named after the roman goddess of love and beauty, it is by far the hottest planet in the solar system with temperatures reaching 430°C. It is mainly due to it’s thick atmosphere made up of mostly carbon dioxide that traps the heat.The symbol of Venus came from the hand mirror as Venus is seen as the goddess of love.Venus is also famously know as Earth’s twin as it slightly smaller in terms of size as compare to earth. Venus is by far one of the most inhospitable planets in the solar system as it rains acid rain.


Venus is famously known as the morning or evening star as it can only be observed in the morning or the evening. When viewing Venus through a telescope, it is possible to view that the planet has phases on it like the moon. It would be closer to us if there is a crescent moon, making the object look bigger. However, it is difficult to observe Venus surface as it is covered by a thick layer of clouds.Picture6


Up next is the most awesome rocky planet of all, our one and onlyhome, Earth. It is the largest and most dense rocky planet  in the solar system. However, the earth is not a perfect sphere as it is thicker at the equator like an apple bulging at it’s side. 70 % of the Earth is covered in Water which is quite surprising as it the water did not come from earth but from comets filled with water hitting Earth. It is actually quite weird for the earth’s moon to be dis proportionally huge as compared to it’s planet with the moon being one-quarter the size of earth. Finally ,it is the only place in the solar system we know where life is possible.Picture7


What makes earth support life is because it is found in a habitable zone known as the Goldilocks zone.It is a zone where it is not too hot or too cold so that life can exist on the planet.This is a test that astronomers use to find planets outside of our solar system if they can support life.Picture8

An example of an exo-planet is Kepler-186f which is the first confirmed earth size planet found in the habitable Zone.It is about 10 % larger than our Earth and takes about 130 days to orbit it’s sun. Furthermore, it is 500 light years away in the constellation of Cygnus which is in our galaxy. As compared to how big galaxy’s length of 3 million light years, 500 light years is a small fraction but it is still quite far for us to travel.Picture9


The last of the rocky planet is Mars, who is named after the roman god of war. Mars redness comes from the layer of rust(Iron (III) Oxide) that covers it’s surface.Mars has the largest mountain in the solar system named Olympus Mon. (22 Km High) which is 3 times higher than Mount Everest at a height of 8,848 m high. It is due to it’s lower gravity that it is able to reach such great heights as compared to Earth. Like Earth ,Mars has two moons named Deimos and Phobos which is way smaller than Earth’s moon.Picture10


The recently sent mars rover curiosity has been a break through for man kind as the rover has discovered some interesting results. Interesting fact, it takes on average 14 minutes for earth to send a message to the curiosity rover on mars. That is due to the fact that it takes 14 minutes for light to travel from Earth to Mars. The Curiosity rover has found some chemicals such as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen, which are the building blocks of life.The rover also found clay minerals that suggest a the existence of water in the past.Picture11

Now humans, are planning on colonising Mars with the famous mars one project funded by private companies.

Mars One Project Timeline

  • On 2013, there would be a selection process for training. At the end only 6 teams of 4 people .
  • On 2015, Training would start with new selections every year.
  • 0n 2022, cargo is launched to Mars.( Two living unit, life support unit and supply unit)
  • On 2023, the rover would set up the outpost.
  • On 2024, Crew 0ne would depart and would take 210-day to Mars with the landing of crew one being on 2025.
  • On 2026 , a second crew would be launched with one crew being launched every 2 years.
  • They chose it to be once every two years when mars is closes to the Earth.
  • After this , the crew would have to spend the rest of their lives on MarsPicture12Picture13

Living there would not be easy however they plan on extracting water from the soil in Mars to get drinking water. They going to use plants to remove the carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere to convert it in to oxygen. Temperature on the equator of Mars is as cold as Norway which is about 10 °C. Crew one would consist of 4 people , preferable 2 male and 2 female so that they would consummate an produce martian children. So as to increase the lifespan of the project. Living on the mars one project would be a one way trip for any pioneer. However, I am sure that for whoever who go, it would be an experience of a life time.


Death of the Universe

We have a famous theory about how the universe started,the big bang. So how would the universe end. Currently scientist have a few theories about how the universe would end. They are the big crunch, the big freeze and the big rip. This three  theories are dependent on two important things that are in the universe dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter is this not well know thing that is found in space that draws matter together. Dark matter can be detected by measuring the difference in visible gravity( gravity caused by how stars and black holes) and the real gravity( gravity measured by the bend in light through gravitational lensing). This difference in estimated mass and real mass would be the mass of dark matter. Dark energy however is a force that pushes matter apart from each other. This force is also causing the expansion of the universe. Thus far away astronomical object are moving further away at an accelerating speed. This two forces are in constant battle to keep the universe in balance.

If the amount of dark energy is larger than the amount of dark energy, the universe would collapse on it’s self  because all the matter in the universe are moving towards each other at such it becomes a singularity. This end would be called the big crunch.

If the amount of dark matter is about equal to the amount of dark energy , the universe would keep expanding until the entire universe becomes uniform in energy. This is because energy moves from a higher concentration to lower concentration .Thus the universe would become very cold and this end would be called the deep freeze.

If the amount of dark matter is lower than the amount of dark energy, the universe would keep expanding at a greater and greater pace until the universe explode like a balloon. This end would be called the big rip.

Our universe by scientist estimate consist of 27% dark matter and 68% dark energy . Thus by our estimate, our universe would experience a big  rip end.